Friday, February 14, 2020

Economic history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Economic history - Essay Example setting up policies like maximizing the use of domestic resources, limiting wages, export subsidies, all aimed at accumulating monetary reserves (Brue & Randy 42). David Hume disagreed with mercantilism on their trade restrictions by stressing that trade restrictions are restriction of innovation, and so these opened avenues for uniform market competition. Physiocrats stressed the importance of agriculture in the economy; he proposed that agriculture is a vital organ in the development of any economy. He suggested an economic environment free of government restrictions when it comes to transactions between two private parties; the only regulations he proposed are those that protects property rights. Since individuals have a natural right to freedom, it should be understood that nature is a self-regulating system and harmonious so human control should never be factored in. Adam smith proposed the idea of artificial stimulation of manufacturing and trade; he made it clear that real wealth of a country not only consist of gold and silver, but also in its houses, lands and consumable goods of all different kinds (Brue & Randy 45). He fueled foreign trade by recognizing that it could explore the overseas markets and largely promote development of production capabilities of the nation and consequently lead to a rise in real wealth owned by a country. He also contributed to the idea of a free market by proposing to the government to reduce and abandon control over foreign trade, and he suggested for the implementation of free trade policies. David Ricardo shed light on the importance of agriculture, by analyzing the importance of diminishing returns. He postulated that a utility is mandatory for exchange values, but does not determine it. He promoted extreme industrial specialization by proposing that a nation should put more efforts on industries in which it is more internationally competitive. Ricardo suggested trade with other countries to obtain goods not produced

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Answer 1 of 2 given questions with given sources Essay

Answer 1 of 2 given questions with given sources - Essay Example While some perceive him as a leader who abused powers and ignored the ideals of the French Revolution, others consider him as a successful leader who delivered the ideals of the French Revolution to his subjects. In this paper, I will comprehensively discuss the figure of Napoleon Bonaparte, his domestic and foreign policies, with an aim of illustrating whether he destroyed or preserved ideals of the French Revolution. Napoleon was a great strategist, a genius, a man with great self-control and very keen to protect his reputation. He had no friends and loved nobody simply because he believed that a man must be firm and have a resolute heart in order to protect the freedoms of citizens and fight the enemies of political, economic and social progress1. In the Napoleon’s diary, he evidently believed that his success and reputation depended on his ability to win wars, and this made him fight strongly for the freedom of French nationalist. â€Å"My power proceeds from my reputation, and my reputation from the victories I have won†¦conquest has made me what I’m; only conquest can maintain me."2 Being a genius and a strategist enabled him maintain an army that could hardly be overpowered. He had a team of secret police that was headed by Joseph Fouchà ©, spies in every corner of his territory to counteract unfriendly governments and watch the actions of friendly powers3. The police f orce that was supported by millions of taxpayers’ money was predominant in helping Napoleon seize freedom from his political adversaries. What’s more, in many battles, he fought alongside his militias hence giving them inspiration and the army became very loyal to him. Apparently, it makes sense to consider Napoleon as a leader who preserved the ideals of the French Revolution. Upon completion of the revolution, Napoleon had fulfilled the ideals that the

Friday, January 24, 2020

Stalin Vs. Hitler Essay -- essays research papers

Run to the Top Josef Stalin, a politician from the earliest beginnings of his life, strove to achieve a national sense of power during his reign over the citizens of Russia. Adolf Hitler, however, a born high school dropout somewhat longed for a place in life. He rather fell into his role as a politician, after his brief shortcomings in arts and sciences. These two individuals developed varying ideas to put their controlling minds to work to lead their political parties in the direction of total domination of the state. In the beginning Josef Stalin was a worshiper of his beloved Vladimir Lenin. He followed his every move and did as he said to help establish and lead the Bolshevik party. Much of the early part of his political career was lost due to his exile to Siberia for most of World War I. It wasn’t until 1928, when he assumed complete control of the country were he made most of his success. After Lenin’s death in January 1924, Stalin promoted his own cult followings along with the cult followings of the deceased leader. He took over the majority of the Socialists now, and immediately began to change agriculture and industry. He believed that the Soviet Union was one hundred years behind the West and had to catch up as quickly as possible. First though he had to seal up complete alliance to himself and his cause. Stalin saw a need to sure up the allegiance to him by all who were under him. Therefore, he needed to fight out against those who opposed him. So for the rest of 1924, the Politburo continued to argue about the future of the Soviet economy. The fiercest argument was between Stalin and Trotsky over Trotsky's theory of permanent Revolution. Trotsky thought that Communism could not survive in the USSR alone. He argued that the capitalist countries of the West feared Communism and would try to destroy it. For this reason, he said, it was necessary to spread Communism to the countries of Western Europe and to their overseas colonies. This would be done by giving help to revolutionary groups and parties in Western Europe. Stalin put forward an opposite theory - the theory of Socialism in One Country. He argued that the USSR must always come first in the government's plans. The rest of the world must take second place. The Communists should concentrate on building up the economy of the USSR, not waste money on helping revolutionary groups abroad.... ...t still got over four million. This is the deviant plan which helped Hitler reach is ultimate goal of a complete governing power by himself with no one to question his authority. These two men were very demanding in obtaining what they thought should be the rule of a nation by their own personal control. Stalin and Hitler were very close in the same way that they had an aggressive vigor to force a type of commanding dictatorship into their respective countries. Each had a special army that they put in high regard politically to where they were considered special police agents. These armies were under different orders, but their main objectives were to stop anyone who opposed, or were thought to be in opposition to the head of state. Also, both Stalin and Hitler had ideas to improve the education levels and economic prosperity of their own countries, each trying to put their own at the top of the world in industry and commerce. Although Hitler and Stalin were opposed to each other’s own strategies and political stance on being a world dominator, they were very similar in the way to which they fought for political power. From the Hitler/Stalin book about 1200 page book comparison

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Common Biases and Errors in Decision-Making Process

COMMON BIASES AND ERRORS IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESS In addition to engaging in bounded rationality, an accumulating body of research tells us that decision makers allow systematic biases and errors to creep into their judgments. These come out of attempts to shortcut the decision process. To minimize effort and avoid difficult trade-offs, people tend to rely too heavily on experience, impulses, gut feelings, and convenient aâ‚ ¬? rules of thumb. aâ‚ ¬? In many instances, these shortcuts are helpful. However, they can lead to severe distortions from rationality.The following highlights the most common distortions. Overconfidence Bias:  Itaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s been said that aâ‚ ¬? no problem in judgment and decision making is more prevalent and more potentially catastrophic than overconfidence. aâ‚ ¬? When weaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢re given factual questions and asked to judge the probability that our answers are correct, we tend to be far too optimistic. For instance, studies have fo und that, when people say theyaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢re 65 to 70% confident that theyaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢re right, they were actually correct only about 50% of the time. And when they say theyaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢re 100% sure, they tended to be 70 to 85% correct.From an organizational standpoint, one of the more interesting findings related to overconfidence is that those individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability. So as mangers and employees become more knowledgeable about an issue, the less likely they are to display overconfidence. Overconfidence is most likely to surface when organizational members are considering issues or problems that are outside their area of expertise. Anchoring Bias:  The anchoring bias is a tendency to fixate on initial information as a starting point.Once set, we then fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information. The anchoring bias occurs because our mind appears to give a d isproportionate amount of emphasis to the first information it receives. So initial impressions, ideas, process, and estimates carry undue weight relative to information received later. Anchors are widely used by professional people such as advertising writers, managers, politicians, real estate agents, and lawyersaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â‚¬ where persuasion skills are important For instance, in a mock jury trial, one set of jurors was asked by the plaintiffaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s attorney to make an award in the range of Rs. million to Rs. 25 million. Another set of jurors was asked for an award in the range of Rs. 25 million to 75 million. Consistent with the anchoring bias, the median awards were Rs. 5 million versus Rs. 25 million in the two conditions. Consider the role of anchoring in negotiations and interviews. Any time a negotiation takes place, so does anchoring. As soon as someone states a number, your ability to objectively ignore that number has been compromised. For instance, when a prosp ective employer asks how much you were making in your prior job, your answer typically anchors the employeraâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s offer.Most of us understand this and upwardly aâ‚ ¬? adjustaâ‚ ¬? our previous salary in the hope that it will encourage our employer to offer us more. Anchoring can distort employment interviews. The initial information you might get interviewing a job candidate is likely to anchor your assessment of the applicant and unduly influence how you interpret information that you obtain later. Confirmation Bias:  The rational decision-making process assumes that we objectively gather information. But we donaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t. We selectively gather information.The information bias represents a specific case of selective perception. We seek out information that reaffirms our past choices, and we discount information that contradicts past judgments. We also tend to accept information at face value that confirms our preconceived views, while being critical and skep tical of information that challenges these views. The information we gather is typically biased toward supporting views we already hold. This confirmation bias influences where we go to collect evidence because we tend to seek out places that are more likely to tell us what we want to hear.It also leads us to give too much weight to supporting information and too little to contradictory information. Availability Bias:  Many more people suffer from fear of flying than fear of driving in a car. The reason is that many people think flying is more dangerous. If flying on a commercial airline was as dangerous as driving, the equivalent of two 747s filled to capacity would have to crash every week, killing all aboard, to match the risk of being killed in a car accident.But the media give a lot more attention to air accidents, so we tend to overstate the risk of flying and understate the risk of driving. This illustrates an example of the availability bias, which is the tendency for peop le to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them. Events that evoke emotions, that are particularly vivid, or that have occurred more recently tend to be more available in our memory. As a result, we tend to be prone to overestimating unlikely events like an airplane crash.The availability bias can also explain why managers, when doing annual performance appraisals, tend to give more weight to recent behaviors of an employee than those behaviors of six or nine months ago. Escalation of Commitment Error:  Another distortion that creeps into decisions in practice is a tendency to escalate commitment when a decision stream represents a series of decisions. Escalation of commitment refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that itaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s wrong.An example of this is of my friend, who has been dating a woman for about four years. He admitted that things werenaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t going too well in their relationship; he informed m e that he was going to marry the woman. A bit surprised by his decision, I asked him why. He responded: aâ‚ ¬? I have a lot invested in the relationship! aâ‚ ¬? It has been well documented that individuals escalate commitment to a failing course of action when they view themselves as a responsible for the failure. That is they aâ‚ ¬? throw good money after badaâ‚ ¬? o demonstrate that their initial decision wasnaâ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t wrong and to avoid having to admit they made a mistake. Escalation of commitment is also congruent with evidence that people try to appear consistent in what they say and do. Increasing commitment to previous actions conveys consistency. Escalation of commitment has obvious implications for managerial decisions. Many an organization has suffered large losses because a manager was determined to prove his or her original decision was right by continuing to commit resources to what was a lost cause from the beginning.In addition, consistency is a cha racteristic often associated with effective leaders. So managers, in an effort to appear effective, may be motivated to be consistent when switching to another course of action. In reality, effective managers are those who are able to differentiate between situations in which persistence will pay off and situations in which it will not. http://www. citeman. com/384-common-biases-and-errors-in-decision-making-process. html

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Religion Is A Major Source Of Gender And Sexual Inequality

Religion is a major source of gender and sexual inequality. Religion is important in society as it contributes significantly to social solidarity. However religion can also be regarded as a source of alienation in which people lose the connection with themselves and their fellow humans. Marx believed that religion can also be seen as a contributor to oppression because not only does it encourage meekness and passivity and deflected people from resisting suffering in this world (Van Krieken et al 2014, p.312). The ideas of masculinity and femininity, expectations of women and men, judgments of women s and men s actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children, different treatment between men and women are all ideas†¦show more content†¦Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development states during a child’s age of 2-7 â€Å"speech becomes more social†¦has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts and concepts formed are crude and irreversibleà ¢â‚¬ , which makes a child or children tremendously vulnerable to social perceptions set by the parents who’s perceptions are influenced by their particular religion (Child Development Institute, 1999-2015) Throughout all children’s upbringing social programming is involved. Social programming occurs when parents pass down morals, values and behaviors to they’re children with religion being but not limited to the result of social programming. Taking a child to a certain church consistently will allow that child or children to identify him or herself as a part of that specific religion. With finding their place in religion children develop behaviors, values and morals that their parents have learned in accordance with their gender. Gender inequality is strongly influenced at a young age and is passed down from generations to generations Another factor of gender inequality in the upbringing of children are gender roles. The division of chores at home forces a developing awareness of unfair normative gender stereotypes on children from a dangerously young age. Spain expects equality of all adults, having enshrined legal sanctions against married men who refuse to do housework in 2005 and also the latest

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Negative Criticism Of Frankenstein - 1581 Words

â€Å"Have your never wanted to look beyond the clouds and the stars, or to know what causes the trees to bud? And what changes the darkness into light? But if you talk like that, people call you crazy. Well, if I could discover just one of these things, what eternity is, for example, I wouldn t care if they did think I was crazy.† -Henry Frankenstein (Frankenstein, 1931) A. The images of Frankenstein are so vividly burned onto our collective consciousness, so universally recognizable, that it’s hard to view their original visual offering as a true masterwork of artistic expression, rather than simply a piece of parodied pop culture. And yet James Whale’s original 1931 film—adapted from author Mary Shelley’s 1818 novel ­Ã¢â‚¬â€not†¦show more content†¦In trying to place each character into a context it was one of the first things that came to mind. And yet, perhaps because I’m slightly biased against Freud, and also would rather not dive into some psychoanalysis discussion, I choose to look at the character as something else entirely. Thematically I look at him as inner truth—whether that be Whale’s truth as a homosexual man in an era who viewed the lifestyle as monstrous, perhaps his own view on himself—conflicted between the attractive doctor of wealth and title, and t he destructive, chaotic, and conflicted monster. It’s hard to say. I do find it interesting that on several occasions the monster is referred to as a wedge between Henry and his soon-to-be wife Elizabeth: directly when Elizabeth states, â€Å"Something is coming between us† and more subtly when Henry’s father, Baron Frankenstein, when trying to comprehend what is keeping his son away from his fiancà © exclaims, â€Å"There is another woman, and I’m going to find her!† There is a bit of irony in that it is not in fact another woman, but another man who is keeping the Baron’s son away. Arguments for Whale’s sequel to Frankenstein, the 1935 film Bride of Frankenstein, being a gay allegory are much more prevalent and apparent than the original. Still I wonder if Whale’s ability to synthesize theShow MoreRelatedNegative Criticism Of Frankenstein1279 Words   |  6 Pagesshocked to life is named Frankenstein. However, that is not the case in the original book â€Å"Frankenstein† by Mary Shelley. As my classmate said, â€Å"Frankenstein† is not only an ionic book, but also ironic considering that the theme of Frankenstein is people being misunderstood when the book itself has misconceptions over the true meaning thanks to the movie that changed the views people had over Frankenstein. Today there are several viewpoints over the works of â€Å"Frankenstein†. Some people consider theRead MoreFrankenstein Analysis Essay1252 Words   |  6 PagesKade Gilbert Mrs. Shelley Wisener ENGL 2321: Frankenstein Analysis Essay 2 October 2017 Mary Shelley’s Journal The human brain while complex, initiating every impulse that controls the body, can be simplified. Simple things such as memories, beliefs, or passions can define the decisions that a person makes. The impulses of humanity may cloud a person’s logic, while each person’s logic, in turn, may affect the impulses of humanity. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is overflowing with emotionally based decisionsRead MoreA Transformation from Gracious to Malicious1072 Words   |  5 PagesMost people are kind at heart, but society’s negative perceptions changes them. Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, portrays this concept. Frankenstein’s monster treats humans kindly - refuting the stereotype that all monsters are evil. In this novel, the monster is kind towards mankind until society criticizes him and turns him into a malicious creature. The monster that Frankenstein creates has kind-hearted morals, but because society harms him based on his hideous appear ance. Because of his treatmentRead MoreFrankenstein Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesCompare Shelley’s Presentation of Women in Frankenstein with that of Brave New World Throughout the novel, Frankenstein, a feminist theme subtly pervades the novel, and is crucial to the characters of the story, the plot line and the setting of the novel. The reasons for the creation of the monster lie within Frankenstein s own familial relationships, especially with the grief he experienced at the loss of his mother. Frankenstein is riddled with passive female characters who suffer throughoutRead MoreThroughout The Novels, Pride And Prejudice And Frankenstein,1191 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout the novels, Pride and Prejudice and Frankenstein, Jane Austen and Mary Shelley, respectively, warn their readers of the social consequences of excessive pride and prejudice. They use their characters as embodiments of pride and prejudice in order to discuss this theme. While both authors emphasize the negative effects pride and prejudice have on reaching one’s goals and on forming relationships, Shelley’s tone and message holds much darker implications as she argues that pride and prejudiceRead MoreFrankenstein: Abandonment, Loneliness, and Rejection1422 Words   |  6 Pagesfaulty natures,† writes the narrator of Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, Dr. Frankenstein. Without a companion of some sort, people will only suffer more. However, without the supervision of parents, c hildren altogether are greatly affected for the rest of their lives. An innately good and sympathetic creature, Dr. Frankenstein’s monster struggles to survive in the human world. After creating and abandoning his creature, Dr. Frankenstein is the juxtaposition of a monster, portraying humans as shallowRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein 1527 Words   |  7 Pagessymbolize romantic fears, offering a tale of certain demise, one that gives technology negative connotations in the form of the creature whom is represented as an outcast of society. To emphasise this, the sublime settings in the text, provide a space where the marginalised can be heard, however, for in contrast to the power of beauty which works to contain and maintain social distinctions, the sublime in Frankenstein opens the way for the excluded to challenge the dominant discourse and this appearsRead MorePursuit Of Knowledge In Frankenstein1866 Words   |  8 PagesIn the gothic novel, Frankenstei n, written in 1818, author Mary Shelley tells a blood chilling story of Victor Frankenstein and his monstrous creation. Many of the main concepts in the Romantic literary movement are prevalent throughout the novel. Some of these concepts include nature as beauty and truth, strong personal motivation, and gothicism which inhibits intense emotion and complex psychology. Victor’s   monstrous creation can be categorized as a romantic hero because of his continuous rejectionRead MoreThe Speed Of Dark By Mary Shelley942 Words   |  4 PagesThe Speed of Dark by Elizabeth Moon and Frankenstein by Mary Shelley are novels that demonstrate society’s lack of acceptance towards abnormalities. The characters in both of these novels are used to portray the challenges people face in order to be accepted in society. In The Speed of Dark an autistic man, Lou, endures poor treatment at work because he performs tasks differently due to his autism. As a result, his boss offers him the opportunity to receive a life changing surgery in order to makeRead MoreFrankenstein: the Dangerous Pursuit of Knowledge1552 Words   |  7 PagesDanielle Bouquio ENG 210 10/16/12 Frankenstein: The Dangerous Pursuit of Knowledge Over the past few centuries, the intellectuals of society have made countless advances in science and the development of technology, which, to different degrees, have all benefitted mankind. These scientific discoveries are a result of man’s thirst for and dedication to acquiring knowledge, information, and power. The innate curiosity and desire for understanding in an individual can grow so immense that his

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Automotive Industys Use of Structural Composite...

The automotive industry’s use of structural composite materials began in the 1950s. Since those early days, it has been demonstrated that composites are lightweight, fatigue resistant and easily molded to shape. In other words, composite structures are seemingly attractive alternative to metals. Not only are composites used in the field of automotive but in all other fields such as aerospace, construction industry, and the entertainment industry. Composite materials have numerous features that led the automotive industry in using it in automobile designs. Its many key benefits include being lightweight, has high strength, corrosion resistant, chemical resistant, elastic, and non-conductive. Composite materials are extremely strong and are highly resistant to chemical, never having to rust or corrode. Fiber reinforced composites have excellent elastic properties. When composites are bent, they snap back into place. Fiberglass based composites are non-conductive. With all these benefits and features, what exactly are composites? Composite materials are developed by the combination of two or more materials, with quite different properties. When composite materials are made, one material is called the matrix or binder, which surrounds and holds a cluster of pieces of a much stronger reinforcement material called fiber, which is the second material. So why does the automotive industry use composites in automobile designs? What are its specific benefits? The use of